The circular flow of income and expenditure refers to the continuous production of products and services, income and expense in an economy. The different parts of expense and national income, for instance, investment, saving, exports, imports, government expenditure, taxation, etc. are displayed as currents and cross-currents in the circular flow of income.
Importance of the Circular Flow
The central concept of a circular flow is that it gives a clear picture of the economy. It also helps in understanding whether the economy is operating efficiently, or there are any obstacles in its smooth operation.
Therefore, the circular flow is significant for the functioning of the economy and helping the government in formulating various policy measures. Apart from the economy, the other important factors are.
- Effects of Leakages and Inflows – The leakages allow us to study the national economy and its impact. For instance, imports are leakages going out of the circular flow of income, as it is paid to a foreign nation. To prevent this leakage, the government should acquire suitable measures such as decrease imports and increase exports.
- The connection between Consumers and Producers – It builds a link between consumers and producers.
- Builds a Network of Markets – After creating a link between the consumer and producer and a network of markets for various products and services, problems relating to purchasing and sales are solved automatically.
- Basis of Flow of Funds Accounts – It helps in evaluating a country’s income in terms of the flow of funds accounts. These accounts are concerned with transactions of the economy that are fulfilled by money transfers.
- Importance of Monetary Policy – It brings equality between investment and saving in the economy indicates the importance of fiscal policy.
- The base of the Multiplier – In case, in a circular flow of income, if the leakage exceeds the injections, the total income becomes less than the total output.
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Marking or engraving? This is the dilemma: Three criteria to avoid making the wrong decision
In the previous article, we explained the fundamental differences between laser marking and laser engraving, which are often wrongly confused. In marking, the laser melts the material through heat and modifies its shape to imprint a permanent code or mark.
Laser engraving, on the other hand, vaporizes the material. The laser beam penetrates deeper into the surface and removes the upper layers by sublimating them, or rather through a direct transition from solid to a gaseous state. This is because the laser hits localized areas with a high intensity of energy and therefore heat.
But how do I choose whether to mark or to engrave?
Now that we understand the difference between the two processes, let’s now define what are the main parameters that lead us to choose one over the other:
1 Marking resistance
Laser engraving penetrates the surface more deeply and is recommended for all those components that are at risk of wear due to the environmental conditions in which they will be set, or that are subjected to post-marking process surface treatments such as sandblasting, shot peening, e-coating or heat treatments
Marking is a process that takes less time than engraving, precisely because it penetrates the surface of the material less deeply. If the component is not subjected to a particular stress, such as with home appliances, electronic, promotional, and jewelry components, marking also guarantees speed mixed with the permanence of the result.
3 The material and its compatibility
As already explained, while marking dissolves the material by modifying its roughness, engraving sublimates the material by creating grooves. To do this, the laser must be powerful enough to vaporize the material in a few milliseconds and the material to be marked must have an adequate sublimation temperature, so deep engraving is not always possible.
When laser engraving occurs, it is important that the laser marker is equipped with a suitable exhaust system. LASIT has designed its exhaust fan, specifically designed to maximize the level of protection of both the environment and the laser itself.
Now that we have a more precise picture of the parameters that lead us to recommend one rather than the other process, it is time to find out about the 10 guidelines for choosing a good laser marker.
What are the steps involved in Lanyard design?
Lanyards are not a modern invention. It was invented in France right back in the 18th century for the soldiers to tie the weapons on to a chord so tight that they can use it often. The design, technique of production, and purpose of the lanyard have undergone a drastic change over the years. These are some of the steps involved in Lanyard design.
The printing of lanyards Singapore follows these steps to design a lanyard.
Step 1: Use a proper tool to design
There is a lot of software available in the market using which you can design some of the best designs for a lanyard. Hire a designer and get it done.
Step 2: Choose the right production process
You might think that all the production process is the same. But this is not the scenario. Certain production techniques may work for certain items and certainly don’t.
To understand which would work for what, you need to have an understanding of the processes.
Screen Printing is a process originated in China back in the 6th century and later it spread to Japan. This process involves pouring ink on a mesh screen which has the logo of your company impregnated on it and the lanyard fabric is placed underneath the mesh and thus, the logo gets created.
Also, you can place the lanyard fabrics which are cut to the desired size, and then you can place the mesh on top of it. The width of the mesh should be the same size as the width of the lanyard fabric.
The paint on top of the mesh is scraped off so that the paint gets stuck to the fabric in a much better fashion.
You can place a silicone sheet on top of the lanyard fabric and then provide some heat on top of the sheet so that the image gets stuck.
While Screen Printing just involves printing the image on top of the fabric, the dye-sublimation method incorporates a process where the dye is impregnated into the lanyard fabric and the color stays longer.
The design is coded on to the sublimation machine and the heat transfer paper is placed in such a manner that the reverse image gets printed on the sheet of paper. This sheet of paper now transfers the images on it to the lanyard fabric. A high temperature is required to complete this process.
There are other post-production processes like cutting the lanyard fabric to its length. Analyzing the quality of the finished product etc.
These are some of the steps involved in Lanyard design. These techniques are tested from time to time and have shown better output due to the efficient processes involved in it.